In a pair of supermassive compact black holes, a new way to measure the vacuum

In this simulation of a supermassive black hole merger, the blue-shifted black hole closest to the viewer inflates the red-shifted black hole behind through a gravitational lens. The researchers detected an apparent dip in brightness as the nearest black hole passed in front of its counterpart’s shadow, an observation that can be used to measure the size of black holes and test alternative theories of gravity. Credit: Jordi Davilar

Three years ago, the world was stunned by the first image of a black hole. A black hole out of nowhere surrounded by a ring of fiery light. This iconic image of the black hole at the center of the Messier 87 galaxy emerged thanks to the Event Horizon Telescope, a global network of synchronized radio dishes that act as a single giant telescope.

Now, two Columbia University researchers have devised an easier way to stare into an abyss. contained in supplementary studies in Physical Review Letters And physical review d, their imaging technique may allow astronomers to study black holes smaller than M87, a monster with a mass of 6.5 billion suns, and shelter in galaxies farther than M87, which lies 55 million light-years away, still relatively close to our path. road.

This technique has only two requirements. First, you need a pair of supermassive black holes in the midst of a merger. Second, you should look at the pair at roughly a side angle. From this side view, when one black hole passes in front of the other, you should be able to see a bright flash of light as the glowing ring of the black hole is magnified away by the black hole closest to you, a phenomenon known as gravitational lensing.

The effect of the lens is well known, but what the researchers discovered here was a subtle signal: a characteristic drop in brightness corresponding to the “shadow” of the black hole in the background. This subtle dimming can last from a few hours to a few days, depending on the size of the black holes and how closely their orbits are intertwined. If you measure how long the drop lasts, the researchers say, you can estimate the size and shape of the shadow cast by a black hole’s event horizon, the point of no exit, where nothing escapes, not even light.

“It took years and tremendous effort by dozens of scientists to make that high-resolution image of M87 black holes,” said the study’s first author, Jordi Davilar, a postdoc at Columbia and the Flatiron Center for Computational Astrophysics. “This approach only works for larger and closer black holes — the pair at the core of M87 and possibly our Milky Way.”

Simulation of gravitational lenses in a pair of supermassive compact black holes. Credit: Jordi Devalar

“With our method, you measure the brightness of black holes over time, and you don’t need to spatially resolve every object. It should be possible to find this signal in many galaxies,” he added.

The black hole’s shadow is its most mysterious and instructive feature. “That dark spot tells us about the size of the black hole, the shape of spacetime around it, and how matter falls into the black hole near its horizon,” said co-author Zoltan Haiman, a professor of physics at Columbia University.

The shadows of a black hole may hide the secret of the true nature of gravity, one of the fundamental forces of our universe. Einstein’s theory of gravity, known as general relativity, predicts the size of black holes. Therefore, physicists have sought them out to test alternative theories of gravity in an effort to reconcile two competing ideas of how nature works: Einstein’s general relativity, which explains large-scale phenomena such as planetary rotation and an expanding universe, and quantum physics, which explains how small particles such as Electrons and photons occupy multiple states simultaneously.

Researchers became interested in igniting supermassive black holes after discovering a suspected pair of supermassive black holes at the center of a distant galaxy in the early universe. NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope was looking for the slight dips in brightness corresponding to a planet passing in front of its host star. Instead, Kepler ended up discovering flares of what Hyman and his colleagues claim are a pair of compact black holes.

They called the distant galaxy “Spikey” because of the spikes in brightness caused by suspected black holes that magnify each other every full revolution through the lensing effect. To learn more about flare, Hyman built a model with postdoc, Davilar.

In a pair of supermassive compact black holes, a new way to measure the vacuum

In this simulation of a pair of supermassive compact black holes, the black hole closest to the viewer gets closer and thus appears blue (Box 1), inflating the red-shifted black hole behind through a gravitational lensing. As the nearest black hole amplifies the black hole’s light further away (Box 2), the viewer sees a bright flash of light. But when the nearest black hole passes in front of an abyss or the shadow of the farthest black hole, the viewer sees a slight decrease in brightness (Box 3). This decrease in brightness (3) is clearly visible in the light curve data below the images. Credit: Jordi Devalar

However, they were confused when a pair of simulated black holes resulted in an unexpected, but periodic, dip in brightness each time one orbited in front of the other. At first, they thought it was a coding error. But further examination led them to trust the signal.

As they searched for a physical mechanism to explain this, they realized that each dip in brightness closely matches the time it takes the black hole closest to the viewer to pass in front of the black hole’s shadow in the background.

The researchers are currently looking at other telescope data to try to confirm the regression they saw in the Kepler data to verify that Spikey, in fact, harbors a pair of merged black holes. If everything is verified, the technique could be applied to a handful of other suspected pairs of merging supermassive black holes among the 150 or so observed so far and are awaiting confirmation.

With more powerful telescopes coming online in the coming years, other opportunities may emerge. The Vera Rubin Observatory, due to open this year, targets more than 100 million supermassive black holes. More black hole exploration will be possible when NASA’s gravitational wave detector, LISA, is launched into space in 2030.

“Even if only a small part of these black hole binaries have the right conditions to measure our proposed effect, we can find many black hole regressions,” Davilar said.

Very Large Telescope reveals closest pair of supermassive black holes to date

more information:
Jordi Davilar et al., Autonomous lens flares from black hole binaries: observing black hole shadows via light curve tomography, Physical Review Letters (2022). DOI: 10.1103/ PhysRevLett.128.191101

Jordi Davilar et al., Autonomous lens flares from black hole binaries: General relativistic ray tracing for black hole binaries, physical review d (2022). DOI: 10.103 / PhysRevD.105.103010

Provided by Columbia University

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